The Great Grounding Game Theory Guide: — The Problem of Faith In Creating Winning Strategies

The best-applied game theory tips, techniques, tools, and strategies, for fast-tracking your self-improvement and personal development.

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Harrison’s Applied Game Theory (HAGT is an umbrella term for thousands of systematic strategies that describe why and how individuals and organizations make decisions. This process involves more than just making wise choices. It is concerned with predictive analytics, collaborative intelligence, and many other related ideas. In this story, we will explore how understanding the issue of “faith” can make you a more effective strategist in the game of life.

For an introduction and simple explanation in text and with a short video explanation of the basics of game theory please click below…

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What does it mean to have faith?

For some people, faith is a mental prison we are trapped in — belief without fact.

Without exception, humans have faith, and yet what does it really mean “to have faith” in something. I don’t necessarily mean religious faith. Faith also means reasonable expectation — that the sun will rise and set, that one’s mate is not having an affair and that the supermarket will have eggs when you go shopping.

Let’s explore this idea of faith. To begin with, we can ask “why do we have faith in anything at all? To this, I would answer that humans are likely genetically hard wired to have faith in something. Without faith we could not survive with any semblance of sanity.

The root of the word Faith is derived from the Latin fides, confidence or trust in a person thing, or concept. The modern English word faith is thought to date from 1200–1250, from the Middle English feith, via Anglo-French fed, Old French feid, feit from Latin fidem, accusative of fidēs (trust), akin to fīdere (to trust).

In the context of religion, one can define faith as “belief in God or in the doctrines or teachings of religion”. Religious people often think of faith as confidence based on a perceived degree of divine will while others who are more skeptical of religion tend to think of faith as simply belief without evidence or blind faith.

Stages of faith development

James W. Fowler(1940–2015) proposes a series of stages of faith or spiritual development across the human life-span. His stages relate closely to the work of various important pioneers in psychology regarding aspects of psychological development in children and adults. Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting, committing, and relating to the world based on a set of assumptions of how one is related to others and the world.

Fowler’s Stages of faith

1. Intuitive-Projective: a stage of confusion and of high impressionability through stories and rituals (pre-school period).

2. Mythic-Literal: a stage where provided information is accepted in order to conform to social norms (school-going period).

3. Synthetic-Conventional: in this stage, the faith acquired is concreted in the belief system with the forgoing of personification and replacement with authority in individuals or groups that represent one’s beliefs (early-late adolescence).

4. Individuative-Reflective: in this stage, the individual critically analyzes adopted and accepted faith with existing systems of faith. Disillusion or strengthening of faith happens in this stage. Based on needs, experiences and paradoxes (early adulthood).

5. Conjunctive faith: in this stage people realize the limits of logic and, facing the paradoxes or transcendence of life, accept the “mystery of life” and often return to the sacred stories and symbols of the pre-acquired or re-adopted faith system. This stage is called negotiated settling in life (mid-life).

6. Universalizing faith: this is the “enlightenment” stage where the individual comes out of all the existing systems of faith and lives life with universal principles of compassion and love and in service to others for upliftment, without worries and doubt (middle-late adulthood (45–65 years old and plus).


Even though applied game theory is based on rational thinking and analytics, faith is always in the mix.

The bottom line is that faith is a conviction that something is true or fact even if there is no evidence to support that belief. There is no hard-and-fast rule that requires individuals pursuing faith to go through all six stages. There is a high probability for individuals to be content and fixed in a particular stage for a lifetime; stages from 2–5 are such stages. Stage 6 is the summit of faith development. This state is often considered as “not fully” attainable.

Author: Lewis Harrison is an Independent Scholar with a passion for knowledge, personal development, self-improvement, and problem-solving. He is the creator of Harrison’s Applied Game Theory.

You can read all of his Medium stories at

“I am always exploring trends, areas of interest, and solutions to build new stories upon. Again, if you have any ideas you would like me to write about just email me at”.

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By L Harrison

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